Asesinato enciende la guerra del condado de Lincoln

Asesinato enciende la guerra del condado de Lincoln


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Las tensiones latentes durante mucho tiempo en el condado de Lincoln, Nuevo México, estallan en una sangrienta guerra de disparos cuando hombres armados asesinan al ranchero inglés John Tunstall.

Tunstall había establecido una gran operación ganadera en el condado de Lincoln dos años antes en 1876, entrando en medio de una peligrosa rivalidad política y económica por el control de la región. Dos irlandeses-estadounidenses, J.J. Dolan y L.G. Murphy, operaba una tienda general llamada The House, que controlaba el acceso a lucrativos contratos de carne con el gobierno. Los grandes ganaderos, encabezados por John Chisum y Alexander McSween, no creían que los comerciantes debían dominar los mercados de carne y comenzaron a desafiar a The House.

Tunstall, un joven emigrante inglés rico, pronto se dio cuenta de que sus intereses estaban con Chisum y McSween en este conflicto, y se convirtió en líder de las fuerzas anti-House. Se ganó la enemistad duradera de Dolan y Murphy al establecer una tienda de mercadería general competidora en Lincoln. En 1877, la lucha por el poder amenazaba con volverse abiertamente violenta, y Tunstall comenzó a contratar a jóvenes pistoleros para su protección, incluido el que pronto sería infame William Bonney, mejor conocido como Billy the Kid.

A principios del año siguiente, The House utilizó sus considerables recursos políticos para contraatacar a Tunstall, ganando una orden judicial que exigía que Tunstall entregara algunos de sus caballos para pagar una deuda pendiente. Cuando Tunstall se negó a entregar los caballos, el sheriff del condado de Lincoln, controlado por la Cámara, envió a un grupo, con William Morton, otro partidario de la Cámara, a la cabeza, para llevarlos. Billy the Kid y varios otros trabajadores de Tunstall estaban trabajando en el rancho cuando vieron a la pandilla que se acercaba. Superados en número, los hombres huyeron, pero no habían ido muy lejos cuando vieron a Tunstall galopar directamente hacia la pandilla para protestar por su presencia en su propiedad. Mientras Billy y los demás miraban, Morton sacó su arma y mató a Tunstall de un tiro en la cabeza.

Aunque no había trabajado para Tunstall por mucho tiempo, Billy the Kid estaba profundamente resentido por este asesinato a sangre fría, e inmediatamente comenzó una venganza de violencia contra The House y sus aliados. El condado de Lincoln se convirtió en una zona de guerra, y ambos bandos comenzaron una ola de crueles asesinatos. Para julio, The House prevalecía, después de haber agregado a McSween a sus listas de víctimas. Sin embargo, la lucha continuaría estallando esporádicamente hasta 1884, cuando Chisum murió por causas naturales, y The House finalmente recuperó el control total del condado de Lincoln. Para entonces, Billy the Kid ya llevaba tres años muerto, asesinado a tiros por el alguacil del condado de Lincoln, Pat Garrett.


Asesinato enciende la guerra del condado de Lincoln - HISTORIA

La guerra del condado de Lincoln comenzó en 1878 en el condado de Lincoln, Nuevo México. En ese momento, el condado de Lincoln era el condado más grande del país, ya que cubría aproximadamente 1/5 del territorio de Nuevo México.

A principios de la década de 1870, dos ganaderos, Lawrence Murphy y James Dolan eran dueños de la única tienda en todo el condado, Murphy & Dolan Mercantile and Banking. Tener dinero y controlar todos los suministros en el condado de Lincoln, también les dio lazos muy influyentes en Nuevo México y esto les permitió obtener contratos muy lucrativos con el ejército estadounidense en Fort Stanton.

Ser la única tienda en el condado permitió a Murphy y Dolan nombrar sus propios precios y esto les permitió obtener una gran ganancia, para disgusto de los ranchos más pequeños de la zona, que se vieron obligados a pagar los altos precios de los bienes y suministros. y tener que aceptar precios bajos por su ganado. Murphy y Dolan controlaban gran parte de la economía y también tenían en el bolsillo a las fuerzas del orden del condado. Esto no les dio a los ranchos más pequeños otro recurso que inclinarse ante los hombres poderosos.

En 1877, un abogado llamado Alex McSween y un ganadero y banquero inglés llamado John Tunstall abrieron una tienda cerca de la casa de Murphy. H.H. Tunstall y compañía fueron un alivio bienvenido para los ranchos más pequeños y también fueron respaldados por un gran ganadero llamado John Chisum. Indignado por esto, Dolan intentó todo lo que pudo para que Tunstall participara en un tiroteo, pero Tunstall se negó a recurrir a la violencia. En cambio, Tunstall contrató a un grupo de jóvenes como guardias de ganado. Este grupo de hombres, liderado por el infame Billy the Kid, llegó a ser conocido como Los reguladores.

Exasperados por Tunstall y los reguladores, en febrero de 1878, Murphy y Dolan pudieron obtener una orden judicial para que consiguieran parte del ganado de Tunstall para pagar una vieja deuda. El alguacil del condado de Lincoln, William Brady, formó una pandilla para ejecutar la orden y cuando entraron en la tierra de Tunstall, Tunstall anunció a los hombres en su tierra y luego fue asesinado a tiros por ello. También se creía que Brady fue contratado por Murphy y Dolan para matar a Tunstall en cualquier caso.

Este asesinato inició la guerra del condado de Lincoln y Billy the Kid se ofendió aún más por este asesinato porque "John Tunstall fue la única persona que le dio un respiro a Billy the Kid y lo trató como a un hombre". Billy the Kid juró venganza por el asesinato de Tunstall y, en el transcurso de los meses siguientes, se vengó.

La guerra del condado de Lincoln terminó oficialmente en noviembre de 1878 cuando el presidente Rutherford Hayes derrocó al gobernador corrupto de Nuevo México y lo reemplazó. Diecinueve personas murieron en esta guerra, incluido el Sheriff Brady, un par de sus ayudantes e incluso Alex McSween, cuando su casa fue incendiada y fue asesinada a tiros cuando salió corriendo del edificio en llamas. Todos en los Reguladores recibieron amnistía del nuevo gobernador, todos excepto Billy the Kid. Todavía era buscado por el asesinato del sheriff Brady y se le puso una recompensa de quinientos dólares por la cabeza y un hombre llamado Pat Garrett, un antiguo amigo del forajido, disparó y mató a Billy the Kid, pero no hasta julio de 1881.

En la cultura pop, la historia de la guerra del condado de Lincoln se contó en una película llamada Chisum protagonizada por John Wayne en el papel principal de John Chisum.

Copyright del contenido y copia 2021 por Vance R. Rowe. Reservados todos los derechos.
Este contenido fue escrito por Vance R. Rowe. Si desea utilizar este contenido de alguna manera, necesita un permiso por escrito. Comuníquese con Amanda Sedlak-Hevener para obtener más detalles.


Contenido

Tunstall nació en 1853 en Hackney, Londres. Su familia era de clase media alta y su padre era un hombre de negocios, con intereses tanto en Canadá como en el Reino Unido. Vivió parte de su infancia en Belsize Park. [ cita necesaria ]

A la edad de 19 años, Tunstall emigró a Victoria, Columbia Británica, Canadá en agosto de 1872 para trabajar en Turner, Beeton & amp Tunstall, una tienda en la que su padre era socio. También tenía algo de capital para invertir. [1]

Tunstall salió de Canadá hacia el oeste de los Estados Unidos en febrero de 1876. Pasó seis meses investigando ranchos de ovejas en California, pero decidió probar Nuevo México, donde la tierra era más barata y más abundante para la ganadería. Poco después de su llegada a la capital territorial Santa Fe, conoció al abogado Alexander McSween.

Le habló de las grandes ganancias potenciales que se obtendrían en el condado de Lincoln. Se estaba resolviendo rápidamente. McSween estaba aliado con John Chisum, (1824–1884), el dueño de un gran rancho y más de 100,000 cabezas de ganado. McSween se convirtió en socio comercial de Tunstall y ambos buscaron el apoyo de Chisum.

El joven inglés compró un rancho en Río Feliz, a unas 30 millas (48 km) casi al sur de la ciudad de Lincoln, y comenzó a trabajar como ganadero. En la ciudad también instaló una tienda mercantil y un banco en el camino de la operación mercantil y bancaria Murphy & amp Dolan. Lo habían establecido unos años antes James Dolan, Lawrence Murphy y John H. Riley, todos inmigrantes irlandeses. La tienda Murphy-Dolan se conocía coloquialmente como "La casa".

Murphy y Dolan dirigían la ciudad y el condado circundante de Lincoln como si el área fuera su feudo. Cualquier transacción comercial de importancia en el condado pasó por ellos. Controlaban los tribunales. El alguacil del condado de Lincoln, William J. Brady, era un inmigrante irlandés del condado de Cavan y estaba aliado de la Cámara.

Tunstall estaba ansioso por ganar dinero en el condado de Lincoln. Ofreciendo precios decentes y tratos razonables en su tienda, atrajo a los lugareños ansiosos por encontrar un competidor para Murphy y Dolan. En sus cartas a su familia en Londres, Tunstall dijo que no solo tenía la intención de derrocar a Murphy y Dolan, sino de volverse tan poderoso que la mitad de cada dólar que ganara cualquier persona en el condado de Lincoln terminaría en su bolsillo. También escribió sobre cómo pronto elevaría a los Tunstall de la clase media a los niveles más altos de la sociedad educada británica.

El negocio mercantil de Tunstall lo puso en conflicto con la poderosa estructura política, económica y judicial que gobernaba el Territorio de Nuevo México. Este grupo de hombres se conocía como el Anillo de Santa Fe. Los miembros del anillo incluían a Thomas Catron (1840-1921), el jefe, que era el fiscal general del Territorio de Nuevo México. Catron poseía 3.000.000 de acres (12.000 km 2) de tierra y fue uno de los mayores terratenientes en la historia de los Estados Unidos. Catron contó a los siguientes hombres entre sus colegas: Samuel Beach Axtell [1819-1891], el gobernador territorial, quien fue despedido por corrupción por el decimonoveno presidente Rutherford B. Hayes Warren Henry Bristol [1823-1890], un juez territorial y William L. Rynerson [1828-1893], un fiscal de distrito, que había asesinado a John P. Slough, el presidente del Tribunal Supremo de Nuevo México, y se salió con la suya. Catron tenía la hipoteca de "The House", por lo que tenía un interés directo en su éxito en Lincoln.

Cuando muchos de los residentes de Lincoln cambiaron su negocio a la tienda de Tunstall, Murphy-Dolan comenzó a caer en la bancarrota y los resultados de Catron se vieron afectados. Murphy y Dolan intentaron sacar a Tunstall del negocio, primero acosándolo legalmente y luego tratando de incitarlo a un tiroteo. Contrataron a hombres armados, la mayoría de los cuales eran miembros de la banda Jesse Evans, alias "Los chicos."

Tunstall reclutó a sus propios seguidores: media docena de pequeños ganaderos y vaqueros locales de aquellos a los que no les gustaba Murphy y Dolan. Estos hombres trabajaban en su rancho y lo protegieron mientras intentaba resolver su conflicto con Murphy / Dolan. Uno de los empleados de Tunstall era William Bonney, de 18 años (alias Henry McCarty, alias William Henry Antrim, alias El Chivato, 1859 [?] - 1881). Más tarde fue apodado como "Billy the Kid" cuando lideraba una pandilla propia.

El 18 de febrero de 1878, Tunstall, Richard M. Brewer, John Middleton, Henry Newton Brown, Robert Widenmann, Fred Waite y William Bonney, conducían nueve caballos desde el rancho de Tunstall en el Río Feliz hasta Lincoln. Una pandilla delegada por el alguacil Brady de Lincoln fue al rancho de Tunstall en el Feliz para embargar su ganado en una orden que se había emitido contra su socio comercial, McSween. Al encontrar a Tunstall, sus manos y los caballos desaparecidos, un sub-grupo se separó del grupo principal y salió en su persecución. Pero estos caballos no fueron cubiertos por ninguna acción legal.

Evans, Hill, Morton (y probablemente Frank Baker) se adelantaron después de Tunstall. Evans, Morton y Hill capturaron a Tunstall y sus hombres a unas pocas millas de Lincoln, en un área cubierta de matorrales. Tunstall, los nueve caballos y sus manos estaban extendidas a lo largo del estrecho sendero. Bonney, que montaba drag, alertó a los demás. Los diputados comenzaron a disparar sin previo aviso. Las manos de Tunstall galoparon a través de la maleza hasta la cima de una colina que dominaba el sendero. Tunstall primero se quedó con sus caballos, luego se marchó, pero fue perseguido por los tres diputados. [ cita necesaria ]

Solo los tres diputados sobrevivieron al enfrentamiento. La mayoría de los historiadores creen que Tunstall probablemente se rindió. Según los informes, le dispararon en el pecho con un rifle y en la nuca con un revólver. La pandilla fingió la escena del crimen, quitando el arma de Tunstall y disparando, luego colocándola cerca de su cuerpo. Este tipo de configuración era una táctica común en el Salvaje Oeste. Ninguno de los integrantes del grupo Tunstall creyó en el relato de "resistencia al arresto" de los agentes. [ cita necesaria ]

El historiador Robert Utley sugiere que Tunstall pudo haber intentado defenderse cuando fue acorralado por Morton, Hill y Evans. Joel Jacobsen señala que Tunstall murió a unos cien metros de sus caballos, lo que sugiere que la pandilla lo quería a él en lugar de a los caballos. Otras pruebas y testimonios pusieron en duda la historia oficial alegada por los tres diputados y respaldada por la facción Murphy-Dolan.

El asesinato de Tunstall encendió la guerra del condado de Lincoln. Bonney se vio especialmente afectado por el asesinato, ya que Tunstall siempre lo había tratado bien.

Bonney, Richard M. Brewer, Chavez y Chavez, Doc Scurlock, Charlie Bowdre, George Coe, Frank Coe, Jim French, Frank McNab y otros empleados y amigos de Tunstall fueron al juez de paz del condado de Lincoln, "Squire" John Wilson . Demostró simpatizar con su causa y los juró a todos como agentes especiales para traer a los asesinos de Tunstall. Esta pandilla era legal y estaba dirigida por Richard "Dick" Brewer, un respetado propietario de un rancho que también había sido el capataz de Tunstall. Los oficiales de paz recién nombrados se llamaron a sí mismos Reguladores y fueron tras Evans, Morton, Hill y Baker y los demás implicados en la muerte de Tunstall. Por lo tanto, dos posesos legalmente delegados cabalgaban libremente en Lincoln en guerra entre sí.

Los reguladores rastrearon y capturaron a Morton y Baker el 6 de marzo, matándolos durante una supuesta fuga. Después de regresar a Lincoln, dijeron que los dos hombres habían matado a McCloskey de los reguladores. El mismo día en que Morton y Baker fueron asesinados, Evans y Tom Hill estaban cruzando ovejas durante el cual Hill fue asesinado y Evans fue herido por el criador de ovejas. Siguieron varios otros asesinatos, cometidos tanto por los reguladores como por los pistoleros contratados por Murphy-Dolan.

El día de los inocentes de 1878, los reguladores mataron a William Brady, el sheriff de Lincoln, junto con su adjunto, George Hindemann. Media docena de reguladores, incluidos Bonney, Jim French y Frank McNab, llevaron a cabo las represalias. Los reguladores mataron a Buckshot Roberts en Blazer's Mills, al suroeste de Lincoln en un área ahora dentro de la Reserva Mescalero Apache. Su hombre, Richard Brewer, también murió en este tiroteo.

El período del 15 de julio al 19 de julio de 1878, la Batalla de Lincoln, se conoció como "La Batalla de los Cinco Días". El ejército de los Estados Unidos del cercano Fort Stanton, bajo el mando del coronel Nathan Dudley, intervino en la lucha y derrotó a los reguladores. Dudley amenazó a los reguladores mientras los Dolanitas se pavoneaban por la calle de Lincoln. Una nueva ley federal de 1878, aprobada por una mayoría demócrata del Congreso y en reacción al uso anterior de fuerzas militares en los estados del sur para reprimir la violencia contra los libertos durante la era de la Reconstrucción, prohibió al Ejército intervenir en conflictos civiles.

Después de su derrota ante las fuerzas de Dolan en la Batalla de Cinco Días, los Reguladores y sus partidarios abandonaron rápidamente la ciudad. Bonney permaneció en Nuevo México, mudándose a Fort Sumner, Nuevo México, 160 millas al oeste de Texas Panhandle, en el río Pecos. Bonney operó como bandido en el área con su propia pandilla y sobrevivió hasta el 14 de julio de 1881, cuando fue asesinado a tiros en Fort Sumner por el sheriff Pat Garrett del condado de Lincoln. A Garrett se le había dado el mandato de deshacerse de Billy the Kid y su banda.


LA LEY COMÚN

Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. (1841-1935), hijo de una prominente familia de Boston, veterano de la Guerra Civil y uno de los jueces de la Corte Suprema más influyentes en la historia de Estados Unidos, argumentó que la experiencia era tan importante como el principio legal en la vida de la Ley.

La vida de la ley no ha sido lógica, ha sido experiencia. Las necesidades sentidas de la época, las teorías morales y políticas predominantes, las intuiciones de la política pública, declaradas o inconscientes, incluso los prejuicios que los jueces comparten con sus semejantes, han tenido mucho más que ver que el silogismo en la determinación de las reglas. por el cual los hombres deben ser gobernados. La ley encarna la historia del desarrollo de una nación a lo largo de muchos siglos, y no puede tratarse como si solo contuviera los axiomas y corolarios de un libro de matemáticas. Para saber qué es, debemos saber qué ha sido y en qué tiende a convertirse. Debemos consultar alternativamente la historia y las teorías legislativas existentes. . . . La sustancia de la ley en un momento dado casi corresponde, en la medida de lo posible, con lo que se entiende entonces como conveniente, pero su forma y maquinaria, y el grado en que es capaz de obtener los resultados deseados, dependen en gran medida. sobre su pasado.

Fuente: Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., El derecho consuetudinario (Boston: Little, Brown, 1881).


La calle más peligrosa de Estados Unidos En la década de 1870, Lincoln, Territorio de Nuevo México, era la capital del asesinato de Estados Unidos.

"Al menos 200 hombres han muerto en el condado de Lincoln durante los últimos tres años, pero yo no los maté a todos".
- Billy The Kid, citado en el Nuevo mexicano diario, 28 de marzo de 1881

La guerra del condado de Lincoln fue excepcionalmente violenta, y gran parte de esa violencia ocurrió en la pequeña ciudad de Lincoln, Nuevo México. Pero el asesinato y el caos eran hechos de la vida allí mucho antes de que Billy the Kid y los reguladores chocaran con los seguidores de L.G. Murphy. De hecho, toda la historia de Lincoln a finales del siglo XIX estuvo marcada por accidentes trágicos, violencia sin sentido, ejemplos cuestionables de justicia fronteriza y actos de venganza. Solo durante la década de 1870, más de 50 personas murieron a lo largo del tramo de una milla de camino polvoriento que atravesaba Lincoln, un hecho que llevó al presidente Rutherford B. Hayes en 1878 a declararla “La calle más peligrosa de Estados Unidos”. "

Los siguientes son solo algunos ejemplos de la violencia mortal que asoló a Lincoln en esos años. Algunos de los que murieron eran víctimas inocentes, algunos eran criminales notorios, pero la mayoría eran habitantes típicos de la frontera occidental. Eran personas duras e independientes cuyas vidas reflejaban la brutal realidad de las condiciones en las que vivían.

Accidentes trágicos

Originalmente conocida como La Placita, Lincoln, Nuevo México, se ve muy pacífica en esta fotografía temprana, pero era el hogar de una calle mortal.
- Todas las imágenes y obras de arte son cortesía de True West Archives, a menos que se indique lo contrario -

El 2 de septiembre de 1876, Josiah "Doc" Scurlock mató accidentalmente a su amigo Mike Harkins en la carpintería detrás de la tienda Murphy-Dolan. Scurlock estaba mostrando su nueva "pistola automática" cuando se disparó accidentalmente. La bala alcanzó a Harkins justo debajo del pezón izquierdo y atravesó su corazón, matándolo instantáneamente.

Dos años más tarde, el 18 de febrero de 1878, Lincoln fue sacudido por la noticia del asesinato de John H. Tunstall. El capitán George Purington envió algunos soldados de Fort Stanton a Lincoln al día siguiente con la esperanza de mantener la paz. Luego, el 21 de febrero, envió un pasajero a Lincoln con un mensaje para el destacamento. El jinete, sin darse cuenta de que había un centinela en el extremo oeste de la ciudad, intentó galopar más allá del palacio de justicia. El centinela, Pvt. Gates, no reconoció a su compañero, aunque ambos eran miembros de la misma compañía de la famosa novena caballería estadounidense. Gates disparó solo una vez, pero Pvt. Edward Brooks, un nativo de Kentucky de 29 años, murió al caer de la silla.

Violencia sin sentido

La noche del 21 de octubre de 1874, Lyon Phillipowski estaba tomando unas copas en la sala de billar del L.G. Tienda Murphy & amp Company. Phillipowski estaba casado con Teresa Padilla y tenían una hija de ocho años llamada Lolita. También fue alguacil adjunto del condado de Lincoln. Cuando llegó el momento de que el camarero William Burns cerrara, Phillipowski estaba enojado. No estaba listo para irse a casa. Insistió Burns. Phillipowski advirtió ominosamente a Burns que lo “vería” afuera. Efectivamente, cuando Burns se fue, Phillipowski se acercó y tomó su arma; Burns estaba listo, y Phillipowski se derrumbó, mortalmente herido, en la calle embarrada. Murió a la mañana siguiente.

El 10 de octubre de 1875, el ex alguacil Alexander H. “Ham” Mills se enfrentó a Gregorio Valenzuela en la calle de Lincoln. Valenzuela y Mills eran vecinos de San Patricio en 1870, por lo que se conocían desde hacía varios años. Mills le debía dinero a Valenzuela, pero no pudo o no quiso pagar. Discutieron, y Valenzuela llamó a Mills un "maldito gringo". Mills sacó una pistola y mató a tiros a Valenzuela, esposo y padre. Fue declarado culpable de asesinato en quinto grado, pero L.G. Murphy obtuvo un perdón para Mills del gobernador Samuel B. Axtell.

¿Justicia fronteriza?

Como albañil, George Peppin participó en la construcción de varios edificios en Lincoln, incluida la casa McSween. Como sheriff, Peppin y su pandilla hacen un asalto mortal a la casa de McSween y la demuelen.
- Cortesía de Robert G. McCubbin -

William Wilson una vez se jactó de haber cumplido una condena en la prisión de Sing Sing. Se dirigió hacia el oeste hasta Lincoln y el 1 de agosto de 1875 asesinó a Robert Casey cerca del hotel Wortley. Wilson afirmó que Casey le debía $ 8 en salarios atrasados. Fue arrestado, juzgado por asesinato y condenado a muerte en la horca. Este fue el primer ahorcamiento legal en el condado de Lincoln, y el alguacil Saturnino Baca estaba ansioso por hacerlo bien. En la mañana señalada, el 10 de diciembre de 1875, Wilson fue llevado a la horca bajo vigilancia. La oración se leyó en voz alta mientras el verdugo preparaba a Wilson para la "caída larga", luego se abrió la trampa.

Desafortunadamente, la caída no logró romper el cuello de Wilson. Su cuerpo bailó al final de la cuerda durante varios minutos, pero finalmente dejó de luchar. Pensando que estaba muerto, el sheriff Baca cortó la cuerda. Se invitó a la multitud a ver los restos y una mujer local se dio cuenta de que Wilson aún respiraba. Como no era alguien que dejara un trabajo a medio terminar, el sheriff Baca hizo que subieran a William Wilson a la horca y lo colgaran por un segundo —y afortunadamente por última vez— vez.

George Washington, un ex empleado de A. A. McSween, estaba "tratando de dispararle a un perro callejero" en junio de 1879 en su casa cerca de las ruinas de la Casa McSween. De alguna manera, una bala destinada al vagabundo alcanzó a la propia esposa de Washington, Luisa Sánchez, y a su bebé, matándolos a ambos. Las circunstancias eran muy cuestionables, pero no hubo testigos. Más tarde, cuando Washington intentó fugarse con una adolescente, se despertaron sospechas tácitas. Washington fue capturado, devuelto a Lincoln, y una noche lo sacaron de la cárcel y lo lincharon.

Venganza

En algún momento a principios de diciembre de 1871, Avery M. Clenny, de 48 años, pasó por el salón de Pete Bishop en Lincoln. Clenny era propietaria de una tienda en Hondo y estaba en la ciudad por negocios. Habló brevemente con Bishop, pero Bishop tuvo que ir a su almacén a buscar algo. Dos hombres más jóvenes, George Van Sickle y Calvin Dodson, entraron en el salón. No está claro por qué, pero cuando Bishop regresó se encontró con Van Sickle y Dodson dándole una paliza severa a Clenny. Bishop recuperó una pistola que guardaba detrás de la barra y persiguió a Dodson y Van Sickle a la calle cerca de la tienda Montano, disparándoles a ambos hombres. Van Sickle sobrevivió. Cal Dodson no lo hizo.

Los hermanos Horrell eran un grupo notorio de forajidos de Texas. Un hermano, Ben, estaba de juerga en Lincoln con amigos cuando fue asesinado en un enfrentamiento con el alguacil Juan Martínez el 1 de diciembre de 1873. Los hermanos Horrell sobrevivientes cavilaron sobre su pérdida durante aproximadamente tres semanas, y luego, la noche del 20 de diciembre, entraron en Lincoln dispuestos a vengarse. Al escuchar música proveniente de Chapman's Saloon, rodearon el edificio y dispararon a través de las puertas y ventanas. La música era para un baile de bodas y el edificio estaba lleno de hombres, mujeres y niños. Cuatro hombres de Lincoln murieron esa noche: el padre de la novia Isidro Patrón, Isidro Padilla, Mario Balazan y José Candelaria. Dos mujeres y un niño resultaron heridos. No satisfechos, los Horrell mataron al menos a ocho personas más en su camino de regreso a Texas.

Lincoln es más famoso por su asociación con Billy the Kid, Pat Garrett, L.G. Murphy y otros concursantes notables en la guerra del condado de Lincoln. Pero el legado de violencia de la ciudad se extiende mucho más allá de esa disputa. Prácticamente cada paso que uno da durante un paseo por las aceras de la calle principal de Lincoln está relacionado con otro incidente fatal. Indiscutiblemente se ha ganado su distinción presidencial: La calle más peligrosa de Estados Unidos.

Kid se asoma desde la cocina llena de humo mientras él y los hombres de McSween se preparan para hacer un descanso. El calor debe haberlo hecho casi insoportable.

José Chávez y Chávez es uno de los defensores de McSween que escapa.
- Centro de registros del estado de Nuevo México y archivos amp -

Anatomía de los campos de la muerte

Billy the Kid logró salir de la casa McSween, junto con varios otros. Cinco no tuvieron tanta suerte y terminaron muertos en el patio trasero.

Hay una media milla de un extremo de Lincoln al otro y, solo en esta calle, 49 hombres y una mujer fueron asesinados en el período de aproximadamente 10 años de la guerra del condado de Lincoln y sus secuelas. Aproximadamente a la mitad del camino, y en el corazón de los campos de exterminio, se encuentran varios lugares, a la izquierda, donde ocurrieron la mayoría de las muertes por disparos.

Uno de los agentes, Billy Mathews, no es golpeado y corre hacia el patio de Cisneros donde se pone a cubierto detrás de una valla. Ve a dos hombres correr hacia la calle y disparar, golpeando a Big Jim French en el muslo.

En la noche del 19 de julio de 1878, en lo que se conoce como la "Gran Matanza" y la "Lucha McSween", al menos cinco hombres murieron cuando las fuerzas de Murphy-Dolan rodearon la facción McSween y los quemaron.

French and the Kid (que algunos piensan que estaba tratando de recuperar su Winchester que Brady le había quitado anteriormente) se apresuraron hacia la pared. El diputado George Hindman es golpeado y cae. Brady, quien es golpeado por una docena de balas, dice: "Oh, Dios" y trata de levantarse, pero otra ronda de disparos lo golpea y cae hacia atrás, herido de muerte. Billy the Kid y seis de los reguladores están en el corral detrás de la tienda Tunsdall cuando ven al Sheriff Brady entrando en la ciudad. Disparando desde detrás de una pared de diez pies, emboscan a Brady y cuatro agentes cuando pasan a pie, caminando hacia el este pasando la tienda. Squire Wilson estaba cavando cebollas en su patio trasero cuando una bala perdida de
los reguladores que disparaban desde el corral de Tunstall le atravesaron las nalgas.

Al intentar escapar por la puerta trasera de la casa en llamas, cinco hombres murieron: Alexander McSween, Francisco Zamora, Vincente Romero, Harvey Morris y Robert Beckwith. Otro, Yginio Salazar, sobrevivió con heridas graves y se escapó arrastrándose. El Vive. Prácticamente al lado de la casa de McSween está la Tienda Tunstall, donde una emboscada anterior de los Reguladores resulta en la muerte del Sheriff Brady y su ayudante George Hindman. Al otro lado de la calle, cavando cebollas en su patio trasero, Squire Wilson es alcanzado por una bala perdida y cae hacia adelante mientras le atraviesa las nalgas.

Tim Roberts es el subdirector de Sitios Históricos de Nuevo México, responsable de todos los aspectos de preservación e interpretación en los ocho sitios y propiedades históricos del estado. Él es el ex gerente de los sitios históricos de Lincoln y Fort Stanton.

Scott Smith Actualmente es el coordinador de instrucción en los sitios históricos de Lincoln y Fort Stanton. Tiene casi 30 años de experiencia con sitios históricos de Nuevo México, incluido el tiempo como gerente en los sitios históricos de Fort Sumner y Coronado.

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La guerra del condado de Johnson: invasión del norte de Wyoming en 1892

El 5 de abril de 1892, 52 hombres armados viajaron en un tren secreto privado al norte de Cheyenne. Justo en las afueras de Casper, Wyoming, cambiaron a caballo y continuaron hacia el norte hacia Buffalo, Wyoming, la sede del condado de Johnson. Su misión era disparar o colgar a 70 hombres nombrados en una lista llevada por Frank Canton, uno de los líderes de esta fuerza invasora.

Los invasores (como se les conoció) incluían a algunos de los ganaderos más poderosos de Wyoming, sus principales empleados y 23 pistoleros a sueldo. La invasión fue el resultado de disputas de larga data entre estos barones del ganado, que poseían rebaños que se contaban por miles, y pequeños operadores, la mayoría con el ganado suficiente para mantener a sus familias. El evento llegó a ser llamado la Guerra del Condado de Johnson. El antiguo historiador de Wyoming T.A. Larson lo calificó como "el evento más notorio en la historia de Wyoming".

Numerosos registros judiciales contienen información valiosa sobre la invasión, al igual que otros documentos gubernamentales, especialmente archivos de tierras. Más significativamente, después de la invasión, a veces hasta 40 años después, los ganaderos y sus aliados publicaron escritos que contenían admisiones que de repente arrojaron una luz brillante sobre temas controvertidos. De estos voluminosos datos surgen hechos claros a partir de los cuales se puede determinar la verdad sobre la invasión y sus causas.

Los periódicos del condado de Johnson datan de agosto de 1883, cuando nadie en el condado de Johnson concibió futuros eventos asombrosos, y esos periódicos están llenos de valoraciones sinceras de la comunidad. Una lectura de los periódicos del condado de Johnson disipa rápidamente la noción, declarada en otros periódicos de Wyoming y otros en todo el país, que Buffalo era "la ciudad más sin ley del país", o un refugio para "piratas de rango" que "sin piedad" robaban grandes ganado de ganaderos.

Los barones ganaderos planificaron, organizaron y financiaron la invasión, declarando de antemano y después que no tenían más remedio que tomar medidas drásticas para proteger su propiedad. Dijeron que fueron víctimas de robos masivos de ganado en el condado de Johnson y que las autoridades locales no estaban haciendo nada para proteger sus rebaños. Además, declararon que Buffalo era una sociedad deshonesta en la que los ladrones controlaban todo: la política, los tribunales y los jurados. Esos jurados, dijeron los magnates del ganado, se negaron a condenar por cargos de robo de ganado, sin importar cuán fuerte sea la evidencia.

La gente del condado de Johnson, por otro lado, creía en gran medida que la verdadera razón de la invasión era la determinación de los grandes ganaderos de expulsar a los competidores del campo abierto que los ganaderos monopolizaban ilegalmente, para detener a aquellos que podrían apropiarse legalmente de tierras públicas bajo el Homestead. y actos de Desert Land. Y los residentes del condado de Johnson dijeron que el robo de ganado era muy exagerado, al igual que las dificultades con el enjuiciamiento por delitos relacionados con el ganado.

El año de la invasión, 1892, fue una época en la que muchas ciudades de Wyoming tenían dos periódicos y una gran ciudad como Cheyenne tenía varios, incluidos tres diarios. Sin embargo, dos de esos influyentes periódicos de Cheyenne eran propiedad de intereses ganaderos, ya que todos los periódicos de Cheyenne eran poco antes de 1892. Sin embargo, los periódicos de la época estaban llenos de información reveladora.

Al contrario de la descripción de los magnates del ganado, Buffalo era una ciudad llena de jóvenes ambiciosos que trabajaron duro para construir su comunidad y mejorar la vida de sus familias. Los habitantes del condado de Johnson no eran santos, pero se parecían poco a la imagen de la criminalidad que más tarde transmitieron los grandes ganaderos.

En la década de 1880, los magnates del ganado en el condado de Johnson y en todo el territorio de Wyoming gobernaban sus rangos habituales como feudos privados. Most had little concept of the true carrying capacity of those ranges, however, and overstocked them.

Cattle prices peaked in 1882, drawing more money to the business and more cattle to the land. Soon there was a beef glut. Prices began to fall, yet no one could think of anything to do but bring in even more cattle—weakening the ranges further and driving prices further down. Then bad drought in 1886 was followed by the terrible winter of 1886-1887.

Johnson County’s newspapers show that following that harsh winter, the Wyoming cattle industry was in bad financial trouble and that the owners of the big herds deeply resented those who might challenge their unfettered right to run their cattle on public land.

Such a challenge could become deadly. That was the 1889 fate of two homesteaders, lynched near the Sweetwater River in Carbon County by six cattlemen on July 20, 1889. Ellen Watson and Jim Averell had homesteads in the middle of the cattlemen’s customary range.

Sensational newspapers articles appeared immediately after the lynchings portraying Watson as a prostitute who accepted cattle for her favors. These articles, however, were written by an employee of one of the Cheyenne dailies owned by cattle barons, and recent authoritative writings show that they were false, created out of whole cloth.

That same year, 1889, Johnson County juries acquitted suspects in five cattle theft cases. Big cattlemen reacted in fury, stating publicly and in private correspondence that the acquittals proved it was impossible to present evidence to a Johnson County jury—no matter how compelling—that would produce a conviction.

A close review of contemporary newspaper articles and court documents, however, shows the cases brought against the accused men to be deeply flawed, seemingly motivated by huge reward money and a frantic determination by owners of big herds to punish owners of small herds who claimed rights to grazing on public land.

In 1891, several of the cattle barons resolved to take action against their tormentors.

The first step was the formation of an assassination squad of employees of the Wyoming Stock Growers Association. This small group of men included Frank Canton, a former Johnson County sheriff and a stock inspector of the association. Their first action was to hang a man from Newcastle, Wyo., Tom Waggoner, who traded horses. They followed this with an attack upon Nate Champion.

Champion was a small man with a reputation as a formidable fighter. He ran a herd of about 200 cattle on one of the forks of Powder River. Champion’s stock grazed on public land, exactly as did the animals of the big cattlemen. He insisted that his cattle had as much right to grass on the public range as did the herd of any cattle baron.

Legally, Champion was absolutely right, but big cattlemen did not take well to his defiance. He was declared “king of the cattle thieves” by a newspaper reporter sympathetic to the cattle barons, although no charges had ever been brought against him. Indeed, after the invasion, Willis Van Devanter, the astute attorney for the invaders, stated there was no evidence at all to substantiate charges of cattle theft against Champion. Still, the prominent cattlemen wanted to punish Nate Champion.

In the early morning of November 1, 1891, members of the assassination squad burst into a cabin occupied by Champion and another man. The cabin was a tiny structure located next to the Middle Fork of Powder River in the Hole-in-the-Wall country about 15 miles southwest of what's now Kaycee, Wyo. Only two members of the five-man squad were able to squeeze into the cabin. Those two, however, held pistols on their two captives and demanded that Champion “give it up.”

Champion, he told the Buffalo Bulletin the next month, stretched and yawned while reaching under a pillow for his own revolver, and the shooting started. The intruders fired shots at point-blank range, so close that powder burns were left on Champion’s face. Amazingly, all the shots fired at him missed. Champion’s return fire, however, did not. One of the squad members was hit in the arm and the other was shot in the belly, a mortal wound. The assassination squad fled, but not before Champion got a good look at one of them.

Private and public investigations followed, and one of the assassination squad members was forced to admit the names of all the members before two witnesses. Those two witnesses were Powder River ranchers John A. Tisdale and, perhaps, Orley “Ranger” Jones. Johnson County authorities filed attempted murder charges against Joe Elliott, the attacker identified by Nate Champion, and local newspapers pushed for charges against the wealthy and prominent cattlemen believed to be the employers of the assassination squad.

About Dec. 1, 1891, both Tisdale and Jones were assassinated. The killings created an uproar in Johnson County and the movement to charge the “higher-ups” became the whole thrust of the community.

The means to arrest and charge complicit cattlemen were at hand. If Johnson County could obtain a conviction against even one of the assassins, he would probably name his employers to avoid a long prison term. On Feb. 8, 1892, a preliminary hearing was held in the case of State v. Elliott for the attempted murder of Nate Champion.

Champion gave dramatic testimony, and Joe Elliott, a stock detective of the Wyoming Stock Growers Association, was bound over for trial in the district court on the attempted murder charge. Johnson County attorneys had amassed a great deal of evidence against Elliott and, with Champion’s testimony, seemed likely to convict him when his case came to trial. The big cattlemen promptly resolved, in early March 1892, to go north and invade Johnson County.

Only a month later, the invaders left Cheyenne and traveled to Johnson County. When they arrived in the southern tip of the county, one of their local spies told them that “rustlers,” including Champion himself, were holed up in a cabin at the KC Ranch, just a few miles north.

The invading cattlemen knew that with Champion’s testimony Johnson County had a strong case against Elliott, and upon Elliott’s conviction the trail would lead back to his employers. If Champion was not killed, these invaders would probably land in the penitentiary. After long argument the invaders took a vote. The decision was made to go to the KC Ranch and kill him.

They surrounded Champion. For hours he fought the 50 men, wounding three. Finally, during the middle of the afternoon of April 9, 1892, the invaders torched the cabin, forcing him out and shooting him down.

By then, however, the countryside had been alerted, and men all over the area rushed to confront the invaders. The invaders holed up south of Buffalo at the T. A. Ranch. There, they were surrounded by local citizens—a posse that eventually grew to more than 400 men. The posse conducted a formal siege, no doubt led by the Civil War veterans among them.

Over three days the posse slowly closed in on the invaders. On the morning of the third day, 14 posse members started moving toward the T. A. Ranch house, using a ponderous, movable fort called a “go-devil” or “ark of safety” made of logs on the running gears of two wagons.

The idea was that when the posse got close to the invaders’ fortifications, they would use dynamite to force the invaders out into the open. The running gears came from the captured supply wagons of the invaders, which contained dynamite intended for use against the people of Johnson County. But the posse never got the chance to use its new weapon. In the nick of time, soldiers from nearby Fort McKinney rode onto the scene and took the invaders into custody.

The governor of Wyoming, Amos Barber, had summoned the soldiers. Barber, according to accounts written years later by the invaders and their sympathizers, was thoroughly knowledgeable about and supportive of the invasion. When he learned that his cattlemen friends were in deep trouble, he telegraphed President Benjamin Harrison in Washington, D. C.

When the telegrams, for reasons that are unclear, failed to go through, Barber asked the two senators from Wyoming, Joseph Carey and Francis E. Warren, to go to the White House and pay a personal call on the president. Harrison was quickly convinced that there was an “insurrection,” as Barber’s first telegram had termed it, in Wyoming and agreed to call on Fort McKinney troops to suppress it.

Once the invaders were taken into custody, however, Governor Barber assumed control over them and refused to even allow them to be questioned the governor completely frustrated the investigation and prosecution of the invaders by Johnson County authorities.

The costs for feeding and housing the prisoners, though, still had to be paid by Johnson County, not to mention the substantial charges for preparation and presentation of the criminal cases. The state provided no financial assistance whatever. Predictably, a travesty of justice was played out eight months later in a Cheyenne courtroom. The charges against all the invaders had to be dismissed because a jury could not be seated to try their cases, and Johnson County did not have the funds to pay the continuing expenses of prosecution.

The cattle barons were protected by a friendly judicial system, but that system could not protect these men from Wyoming voters. The Republican Party was closely associated with the cattlemen and their principal organization, the Wyoming Stock Growers Association. One of the state’s two U.S. senators, Republican Joseph Carey, had recently served as president of the association.

Many Wyoming people were offended by the spectacle of the senators’ late night personal visit to President Harrison to rescue wrongdoers. (The senators had rousted the president out of bed). The invaders and their supporters did everything they could in the months after the invasion to suppress Johnson County and its advocates, including mounting a fervent attempt to have martial law declared in the state. President Harrison, however, apparently made cautious when great numbers of Wyoming people protested his earlier actions, refused to do that.

The 1892 election was a landslide in favor of the Wyoming Democratic Party. A Democrat was elected governor and another was elected to the U.S. Congress. At the time, U.S. senators were still elected by state legislatures enough Democrats were elected to the Wyoming state legislature that no Republican could be selected for the U.S. Senate. Senator Francis E. Warren lost his seat.

Still, the 1892 election hardly proved to be an unalloyed good to Wyoming Democrats. Because of fears and resentments stirred up by the invasion, the 1893 legislative session was as bitter and partisan as any in the history of the state. Democrats now controlled the Wyoming House but Republicans retained control of the Senate.

But the state’s Democrats had made the mistake of running “fusion” tickets with the Wyoming Populist Party and, in the crunch, found that the two parties could not operate well together. No Republican was sent to the U.S. Senate, but because of the political incompetence of the fusion coalition, no Democrat was either. For two years, Wyoming had only one senator in the U.S. Congress.

In 1894, following the nationwide Panic of 1893, Wyoming voters threw out the Democrats, the party in power during that economic catastrophe. Francis E. Warren was returned to the U.S. Senate in 1895 and served there for the next 34 years.

Despite mixed electoral results, there were permanent and positive changes in response to the Johnson County War. Wyoming people had made it abundantly clear—by their votes and by strong resolutions to public officials reported in newspapers-- that they would not tolerate abuses like the invasion of Johnson County.

Perhaps most significantly, the organization primarily responsible for the Johnson County War, the Wyoming Stock Growers Association, was changed forever. Plagued by continuing economic woes, the cattle barons in the association permanently altered this organization in 1893 when they opened their group to all the stock growers in Wyoming.

In what was a galling but necessary action, the small cattlemen of Wyoming, vilified such a short while before, were invited to join. This action abruptly halted the overwhelming hostility of the big cattlemen toward the smaller operators and stopped such programs as the confiscation, at point of sale, of suspected rustlers’ cattle by the Wyoming Livestock Commission.

After 1893, a measure of peace descended upon the Wyoming range, although it wasn’t until 16 years later that armed economic vigilantism was finally stopped in Wyoming. Cattlemen raiders —killing sheep and sheepherders—were convicted of serious crimes after the 1909 Spring Creek Raid south of Tensleep, Wyo., and were sent to the Wyoming penitentiary. Wyomingites could finally claim to have put frontier mob rule behind them.


John H. Tunstall Murder Site

Temas. This historical marker is listed in this topic list: Notable Events. A significant historical date for this entry is February 18, 1878.

Localización. 33° 21.834′ N, 105° 26.168′ W. Marker is in Glencoe, New Mexico, in Lincoln County. Marker can be reached from Forest Road FS9019D. Located approximately 4 miles off of US 70. See directions below. Toque para ver el mapa. Marker is in this post office area: Glencoe NM 88324, United States of America. Toque para obtener instrucciones.

Otros marcadores cercanos. At least 8 other markers are within 10 miles of this marker, measured as the crow flies. John H. Tunstall (approx. 3.2 miles away) San Patricio (approx. 7.1 miles away) Old Dowlin Mill (approx. 8.6 miles away) Lincoln (approx. 9.1 miles away) Ellis and Sons' Store (approx. 9.3 miles away) Montano Store (approx. 9.3 miles away) Earliest Courthouse (approx. 9.3 miles away) San Juan Church (approx. 9.3 miles away).

Más sobre este marcador. The road to get to the Tunstall Kill Site is very rocky. It's not recommended you attempt the drive in a low clearance vehicle, however a 4WD is not necessary.

As of August 2015, Google Maps incorrectly shows the location of FS 9019D. FS 9019D is actually about 100 yards east of the location shown on Google Maps (closer to the bend in FS 443).

Regarding John H. Tunstall Murder Site. Direcciones:
1. From US 70 turn south onto Glencoe Loop (US 70 Frontage Road).
2. From Glencoe Loop turn south onto Coe Canyon Road.
3. Take Coe Canyon Road until you come to the fork at Tunstall Canyon Road.
4. Take the left leg of the fork which will

become Forest Road 443.
5. Drive south down Forest Road 443 for approximately 4 miles (always veer right -- dont take any roads that fork off to the left).
6. Stop at marker 9019D and park (The marker is easy to miss so pay close attention).
7. Walk down the trail north into the trees.
8. Walk North 408.3 yards along the jeep trail to a tree stump on the left side of the trail with a red arrow painted on it pointing straight ahead. The paint is faded and blends into scenery.
9. Walk West 79.4 yards to the marker.


Home Brewed Mojo

2/18/1878 - A single death on this day proves to be the spark that ignites what Western historians call the Lincoln County War . a battle between rival factions for control of the New Mexican region that will last until July of 1878, see numerous back-and-forth revenge killings, feature a five-day siege of a Lincoln store, and turn an unknown young cowboy named William Bonney (or Henry McCarty if that is your preference) into the outlaw legend, Billy the Kid.

Billy The Kid

The conflict that will cost many lives and fortunes before its completion, results from antagonisms that develop when the control of the area's ranching and dry goods interests (and contracts to supply the military with beef) begin to be challenged in 1876 by a disparate triumvirate seeking to break the monopoly . a threesome made up of wealthy 24-year-old English businessman John Tunstall, 35-year-old Canadian lawyer and merchant Alexander McSween, and 53-year-old cattle rancher John Chisum (his spread contains over 100,000 cattle). A very formidable group facing a ruthless foe in the form of what is called "The House" . a name for the members of those in support of the ongoing criminal activities of the Murphy-Dolan interests in New Mexico.

Tunstall, McSween, and Chisum

Named for its creator, 47-year-old Lawrence Murphy from Ireland, and his business partner, 30-year-old Union Army veteran James Dolan, the Murphy-Dolan gang makes big money off the region starting in 1869 with the establishment of L. G. Murphy & Co. Soaking local farmers and ranchers with high prices as the only game in town (with their tentacles into the entire territory as part of what is called the "Santa Fe Ring" that includes rancher Thomas Catron, a rancher with a spread of 3,000,000 acres, who also happens to be attorney general, district attorney William Rynerson, territorial judge Warren Bristol, and territorial governor Samuel Beach Axtell) . and wanting their monopoly to remain as is, they are not happy when their rivals open J. H. Tunstall & Co. in 1876. Not happy to the extent that when their foes won't back down, they begin hiring as cowboys, outlaws and killers from the Seven River Warriors, the Jesse Evans Gang (of which Billy the Kid was a former member), and the John Kinney Gang (actions that Tunstall and friends react to by hiring their own gunmen, a group that will call themselves The Regulators and includes the Kid, Tom O'Folliard, Jose Chavez y Chavez, Richard Brewer, Frank McNab, Charlie Bowdrie, Jim French, George and Frank Coe, and Doc Scurlock).

Murphy, Dolan, Catron, And Jesse Evans (With Friend)

Mix those circumstances with "we were here first" attitudes, one side being composed mostly of Irish Catholics, while the other come from Protestant backgrounds, the fact that McSween once served as a Murphy-Dolan lawyer, and a trumped up case (later dismissed) that results in a court order to attach McSween's assets, and the bloodshed that will take place becomes inevitable . especially when the court order is misused to also grab the assets of the Tunstall ranch.

Posse dispatched on 2/18/1878 to put Tunstall out of business one way or another, when the gunmen for Murphy-Dolan arrive at the ranch and find its owner not home, a smaller group leaves the ranch and goes in search of Tunstall and any of his cowboys seeking trouble. Unaware of what is happening back at the ranch, Tunstall and a group of his ranch hands, that includes Billy the Kid, are leisurely riding to Lincoln with a small group of nine horses. Pursued and caught a few miles out of town in an area of scrub timber, the posse opens fire without warning on Tunstall and his men, scattering the riders (who gallop off to a hillside overlooking the trail into town). Brave to a fault or just plain stupid, instead of escaping into a better position also where he can defend himself, Tunstall stays with his horses and surrenders to the "deputies" that confront him . Jesse Evans, William Morton, and Tom Hill. But surrender isn't what the trio is looking for and Tunstall is gunned down by a rifle bullet to the chest and a revolver (a killing witnessed by his men on the hill) round through the back of his head. Killing complete, the trio then fires Tunstall's pistol and arranges the body to match the story the men will tell of the rancher resisting arrest . a story bought by authorities under the control of the Murphy-Dolan faction, no charges are filed against the threesome for Tunstall's death.

War! Tunstall's murder incites both sides into an open clash that will have Morton and Hill (and Frank Baker) murdered near Blackwater Creek in another "attempted escape" killing of individuals already disarmed and in custody (Morton will be shot ten times, and Hill goes down with five pieces of lead in his body), the ambush assassination by Billy and his Regulator buddies of Lincoln Sheriff William Brady and Deputy George W. Hindman (blaming the pair for Tunstall's death), the deaths of Buckshot Roberts (Murphy-Dolan) and Richard Brewer (Tunstall) in a gun battle at a trading post called Blazer's Mill, a gunfight at the local Fritz ranch that results in the death of Frank McNab, gunnings in Lincoln that take the lives of several Murphy-Dolan men, and the five-day Battle of Lincoln that results in the death McSween as he flees his burning home and store. Weary of the killings, many of the bitter combatants already dead, and the United States government involved in the form of a new governor being appointed by President Grant (Civil War general and soon-to-be Ben Hur author, Lew Wallace) and sent to New Mexico to put the war to an end, the clash peters out in July of 1878 (Murphy will grab all of Tunstall's ranch, but dies of cancer soon after, while Dolan drinks himself to death on his ranch by the age of 49) without a clear cut winner.

Sheriff Brady

The End Of The Battle Of Lincoln

There is however one huge living loser when the war ends (but not for long) . Mr. William Bonney, who will surrender to authorities under the promise of a pardon by Governor Wallace for providing testimony about the murder of attorney Huston Chapman by members of the Murphy-Dolan faction, have the pardon reneged on, form a gang of rustling outlaws, see his best friend, Charlie Bowdre, killed when Sheriff Pat Garrett and posse mistake him for the Kid, get caught, tried for the murder, and be sentenced to death for the Brady ambush (legend has the judge sentencing Billy to hang until he is "dead, dead, dead," to which the outlaw responds, "Go to hell, hell, hell."), and kill Lincoln deputies James Bell and Bob Ollinger escaping the Lincoln jail, before being killed by Garrett at the home of Pete Maxwell on 7/14/1881 at the age of only 21.

Garrett

Newly Discovered Photo Believed To Be Of Billy The Kid

2/18/1878, and with the murder of rancher John Tunstall, the Lincoln County War begins!


Brady's family were Irish Catholics and members of the rural working class of County Cavan, his father being a potato farmer. He attended the newly opened local school and graduated in 1844. [1]

After the death of his father, he was briefly involved in local politics. During the Great Famine, he left for the United States. [2]

Upon his arrival in New York in July 1851, Brady enlisted in the U.S. Army and was assigned to the mounted rifles. He spent five years in southern Texas achieving the rank of Sergeant and upon reenlistment was transferred to Fort Craig, New Mexico in 1856. [3]

His enlistment was up in March 1861 and he was discharged at Fort Craig, only to enroll in the New Mexico Volunteers as a first lieutenant in Albuquerque the following August. He fought against the Confederate Army at the Battle of Glorieta Pass and stayed with his unit when it was incorporated into the First Regiment, New Mexico Cavalry. [ cita necesaria ]

After the Confederate troops left New Mexico, he was assigned as a recruiting officer in Polvadera, New Mexico. [4]

In 1862, he married María Bonifacia Chávez, a Mexican-American widow from Corrales. [5]

The following year Brady was assigned as the acting commander at Fort Stanton, and in 1864 was confirmed as commandant there. He led several successful campaigns against the Navajo and Apaches. He served as commandant at several other New Mexico forts until his discharge in October 1866 at the brevet rank of Major. [6]

Brady and his wife and children settled on a ranch on the Río Bonito, four miles east of Lincoln, New Mexico. He was first elected Sheriff of Lincoln County on September 6, 1869 and took office in January 1870.

In 1871, Brady was elected as the first representative from Lincoln County to sit in the Territorial Legislature. [7] He lost his seat in the next election. In 1876 he was elected again as sheriff. [8]

Although Lincoln sheriffs had tried for eight years to get money from the county for a jail, Brady finally got funds ($3,000) [9] to build an underground holding area in 1877.

Prior to that, the sheriff used the military jail at Fort Stanton. The new jail was twenty feet wide by thirty feet long, and ten feet deep. It was lined with rough logs and divided into two cells with a ladder and a trap door for access. [10] Light, when available, was by candles. [11]

Conditions were so bad and escapes so common that the county anted up for a real jail in 1880. One of the causes in the lack of confidence in Sheriff Brady was the escape in November 1877 of Jesse Evans and his gang. [10]

Brady sided with the Murphy-Dolan faction in the Lincoln County War. This put him up against Alexander McSween, Billy the Kid and the Reguladores. Lawrence Murphy owned the mercantile (the dry goods store) in Lincoln, and Brady owed him money.

In the Spring of 1877, Brady was beaten up by two bravados, believed to be John Tunstall’s cowboys, in the middle of the main street of Lincoln. But their identity was never confirmed. People speculated that they worked for Tunstall. [12]

Lincoln county deputies, sympathetic with the Murphy-Dolan faction, shot and killed Tunstall on the trail in cold blood. Tunstall was the first fatality in what has become known as the Lincoln County War. [ cita necesaria ]

On April 1, 1878, Reguladores Jim French, Frank McNab, John Middleton, Fred Waite, Henry Newton Brown and Billy the Kid ambushed Brady and four of his deputies on the main street of Lincoln. They fired on the five men from behind an adobe wall. Brady, aged 48, died of at least a dozen gunshot wounds. [13] Deputy George W. Hindman was hit twice, fatally. [14]

Once the shooting stopped, Billy the Kid and Jim French broke cover and dashed to Brady's corpse, either to get his arrest warrant for McSween or to retrieve Billy's rifle which Brady had kept. A surviving deputy, Billy Matthews, wounded both men with a rifle bullet that passed through each of their legs. They still managed to escape. [ cita necesaria ]

Brady was first replaced by John Copeland as sheriff. Copeland refused to take sides in the conflict. Dolan used his influence to have him replaced by George Peppin. [ cita necesaria ]

It was for the murder of Brady that Billy the Kid was convicted by a territorial court in April, 1881, and sentenced to death, a conviction that led to his famous escape from the Lincoln County jail and his subsequent killing by Sheriff Pat Garrett. [15]


Murder ignites Lincoln County War - HISTORY

We have attempted to transcribe the articles word for word, except for correcting the more common misspelled words.

Fuente: Carrizozo Outlook issue of 16 Mar 1917.

Transcribed by Mike Magers.

Note: The article was written in 1917. There are several last names which we now know to be different:

Harrold = Horrell, Tungstel = Tunstall, McSwain = McSween, Scholan = Scholand (Emilie Fritz)

Lincoln County Scene of Exciting Early Day Events

The historic old courthouse at the now peaceful little town of Lincoln, which is about sixty miles west of Roswell is perhaps better known and more widely celebrated as the center of stirring events and bloody battles and the spot where more bad men lost their lives with their boots on than any other part of New Mexico.

The first of these important events was the "Harrold War," the principal scenes of which were enacted in or about Lincoln.

It was in general a feud based upon race hatred. The story of the war in brief is as follows In 1873 a family of five brothers, named Harrold, came from Lampasas county, Texas, bringing their families and stock with them, and settled on the Ruidoso about 10 miles from Lincoln.

One day while on a trip to Lincoln one of the boys, Ben, with two other white men got to drinking and brandishing their guns, which some Mexican deputies took away from them. This so angered the white men that they procured more guns and in the fight which followed the 3 Americans and one Mexican were killed. When Ben's brothers heard of this, they came to Lincoln and tried to have the Mexicans prosecuted, but as the Mexicans had only done their duty, they failed in that way, so took out their revenge on them by killing every Mexican they met. The Mexicans gave back the same thing, and many murders were committed until finally the Harrold brothers returned to Texas, where they all met violent ends.

This ended what was known as the Harrold war, but the ill feeling still slumbered for a period of about two years, when what was termed the "Lincoln county war" broke out afresh, and between the years of 1875 and 1882, Lincoln county was probably the bloodiest spot in the United States, considering its population.

Here it was that the bloody feud between the two parties of cattlemen began in the spring of 1876. The two parties were headed, one by John S. Chisum, whose attorney, Alex McSwain, was really the fighting head of this faction, and the other by Dolan and Riley. These two firms were bitter rivals to secure the contracts to furnish both cattle and other supplies to Fort Stanton, then a military post, now a government hospital for marine consumptives, 9 miles southwest of Lincoln. Each of these factions accused the other of stealing the other's cattle with which to furnish Fort Stanton with beef. Naturally the majority of the residents of the whole county were drawn to declare sides with one or the other. Numerous bad men were hired to do the gun work for these two factions.

Following is a short extract from "The History of New Mexico," which explains in brief the cause of the Lincoln county war. Alexander McSwain, who headed the faction of which Mr. Coe was a partisan, came to Lincoln about 1870, practiced law for several years and in 1873 established a partnership with John H Tungstel in the mercantile, banking and ranch business at Lincoln, in the building now occupied by J. J. Jaffa & Co. McSwain also became attorney for John S. Chisum, the cattle king of the Pecos river, who, at this time had about 70,000 head of cattle on the range.

"Colonel Emil Fritz and Major L. G. Murphy had been post traders at Fort Stanton until the government turned out the traders and then about 1867 or '68 they came to Lincoln and continued their mercantile partnership in the building later used as a courthouse. While on a trip to Germany, Colonel Fritz died and a short time afterward, J. J. Dolan and John Riley succeeded to the firm of L. G. Murphy & Co., tho Murphy remained in the firm as silent partner.

"These two firms were bitter rivals for the contracts to supply the government posts with cattle and other supplies. The rivalry was carried on both above and below board and doubtless both sides resorted to questionable means of obtaining advantage, but it became rather generally understood that a great many of the cattle that were being turned in by the firm of Dolan and Riley were stolen cattle picked out from the ------ brand herds then owned and run by John Chisum. The latter, with his attorney McSwain, prosecuted a number of persons for the larceny of these cattle.

"This is thought to have been the entering wedge which separated the people of Lincoln county into two contending factions.

"About a year before the first act of hostility in the war McSwain, acting as attorney for Mrs. Scholan, sister of Colonel Emil Fritz, collected an insuance policy on the life of her deceased brother. McSwain, so it is alleged, had previously agreed with the sister to collect the policy at his own expense and was then to retain a certain percent of the proceeds.

"He went to New York at his own expense and compromised the case with the insurance company which had theretofore refused to pay a dollar. On his return he offered to turn over to Mrs. Scholan, as substantiated by several witnesses, the entire amount collected by him less his percentage as attorney.

"Mrs. Scholan, acting on the advice of Murphy, Dolan and Riley, refused to accept this money and demanded the entire collection less the personal expenses. McSwain refused and Mrs. Scholan commenced legal action to recover the insurance money. In this suit an attachment was levied on the mercantile firm of Tungstel & McSwain and upon the cattle on the ranch owned by Tungstel on the Felix river in Lincoln county.

"When the deputy sheriff and his posse arrived at the ranch to serve the writ they found there John H. Tungstel, Richard Brewer his foreman and William H. Bonney, later famous as Billy the Kid. Mr. Coe states that the parties were friendly while at the ranch and after levying the attachment on the cattle the deputy sheriff permitted Tungstel, Brewer and Bonney to set off for town with all the ranch horses. When about twenty miles from the ranch the latter party discovered a bunch of turkeys in what is now known as Tungstel canyon and stopped to hunt them. While hunting the sheriff's force came upon them. According to the statement of Brewer and Bonney, Tungstel rode toward the posse. Arriving within 15 to 20 feet they ordered him to thow up his hands which he did, dropping his gun and everything, and they shot him while his hands were over his head.--Continued next week. [Source: Carrizozo Outlook. (Carrizozo, N.M.), 16 Mar 1917.]

Continued from last week - "At the first intimation of danger the other two men had made for the shelter of a hill where they were attacked and a general battle ensued. They stood off the posse until nightfall when they escaped and made their way to Lincoln and related the tragedy. Within two days the town was full of armed and excited men roused to the highest pitch of bitterness by the killing. Such was the opening event of the Lincoln war. The resulting fights and quasi legal contests could hardly be dignified with the name of war, since personal enmity and the spirit of feud were pregnant elements of the dispute. As always happens at such a time, the criminal class gladly allied itself with one party of the other, glad to stand its outlawry with some semblance of justifiable warfare. The events that follow were in reality the combination of the hatred provoked by cattle rustling and less specific roguery intensified by alliance with the opposing sides of many persons who had individual scores to settle."

It is the intention of this narrative to dwell chiefly opon the lawlessness of the famous desperado Billy the Kid, of whom nearly every person of mature years must have heard, and opon whom rests the record of having killed 21 men, one man for each year of his life at the time he was killed.

The first murder in Lincoln county for which Billy the Kid was responsible was that of Sheriff William Brady, who was shot down by the outlaw on the streets of Lincoln as the sheriff was hunting the kid, for whom he had a warrant for his arrest. After the death of Brady, Sheriff Pat F. Garrett, who then ranched near Roswell, was elected sheriff as he was known to be brave and a good shot and who generally got the man he went after. Garrett had arrested Billy the Kid for some murders he had committed and after having him tried at Las Cruces he was condemned to be executed at Lincoln to which place he was taken. One day while walking down the corridor in the old courthouse in charge of his guard Bell, Billy the Kid asked to have his handcuffs removed for a moment and Bell did so, but soon Bell regretted his act for the kid sprang up the stairs and breaking in the door of the room where the guns were kept he grabbed one and turned and killed Bell with one shot. Then crawling to the edge of the balcony he called to the other guard Olinger, who was bringing the other prisoners back from dinner from across the street. Olinger looked up and Billy filled him full of buckshot from Olinger's own gun. He then called down to a man who had charge of the courthouse stable and ordered him to saddle Billy Burke's horse for him and in the meantime he ordered an old man to file off the handcuffs which were still locked on one wrist, keeping him covered with a gun while the work was being done. As sooon as he was free he rode out of town, shooting at everyone he saw, toward Ft. Sumner, his old stamping grounds. Sheriff Pat Garrett, who was in White Oaks at the time, at once set out to capture him, which he did in two weeks, when he killed the notorious outlaw at the home of Pete Maxwell, at Ft. Sumner.


Billy the Kid and the Lincoln County War: the Irish connection

The Lincoln County War of 1878 was really a battle fought between two business factions. Nowadays the weapons in such a contest would be advertising, pricing and shopping convenience. In the lawless territory of 1870s New Mexico, the weapons were more lethal. In the early 1870s Lawrence G. Murphy, an Irish emigrant and ex-Union Army soldier, went into business in Lincoln County, New Mexico, opening a store and saloon in the town of Lincoln itself. Although sparsely populated, Lincoln was then geographically the largest county in the United States and not a bad place to have a monopoly. Along with his junior partner, another Irishman called Jimmy Dolan, Murphy sold goods and supplies to rich and poor alike, including the famous cattle king and trail-blazer John Chisum. Not all of their customers were happy with the prices and interest rates on outstanding balances. Certainly Chisum wasn’t. But a monopoly is a monopoly—until competition arrives.
In the mid-1870s competition appeared in the guise of an ambitious Englishman named John Henry Tunstall. The scion of a wealthy family, Tunstall saw an opportunity. Indeed, in a letter to his parents back in England, he expressed the goal of ‘capturing fifty cents out of every dollar in the county’. To that end, and with the tacit support of John Chisum, Tunstall set up his own store and bank in Lincoln, across the street and a little bit down from the Murphy/Dolan establishment. Needless to say, the lads weren’t pleased. So relations rapidly deteriorated, with both factions hiring their own small private armies. One of Tunstall’s hirelings was a young William Bonny, who subsequently became (in)famous as Billy the Kid.
The smouldering hostilities evolved into open conflict in early 1878 when an associate of Tunstall’s, a lawyer named Alexander McSween, became embroiled in an alleged embezzlement dispute with Murphy and Dolan. In the ensuing events, Tunstall was murdered by a trio of Murphy/Dolan gunmen, nominally working within the law. All hell promptly broke loose. A group of Tunstall’s men, calling themselves ‘Regulators’, set out to avenge him. They too had initial legal cover, thanks to indictments and arrest authorisation from an aging justice of the peace, one John (Squire) Wilson. Unfortunately for their legal standing, the territorial governor quickly revoked their authority.
As wars go it didn’t last long, finally culminating in the five-day Battle of Lincoln in July 1878. By the battle’s conclusion, the McSween house had been burned down and McSween had been killed. But in reality the war produced no clear winner. On the one hand, both Tunstall and McSween were dead. On the other, the Murphy/Dolan operation was bankrupt and, coincidentally, Murphy was on the point of fatally succumbing to alcoholism. There was also another loser: Billy the Kid emerged from the war as an outlaw with two arrest warrants for murder against his name.
As prime movers in the Lincoln County War, Murphy and Dolan were part of the Irish connection. So too was William Brady. Born in Cavan town in August 1829, Brady emigrated to the US as a young man and subsequently spent ten years in the Union Army, followed by five in the Civil War New Mexico Volunteers. After being mustered out in 1866, he farmed east of Lincoln and assumed a number of civic roles, including that of sheriff of Lincoln County. In that capacity Brady aligned himself with Lawrence Murphy, his friend and former army colleague. Their relationship was compounded by his being heavily in debt to Murphy. After Tunstall’s murder Brady became a prime target for the avengers.
Although he had originally deputised the men who killed Tunstall, there is no evidence that Brady was complicit in Tunstall’s murder. Nor was he an active protagonist in the ongoing hostilities. Indeed, historian Robert Utley suggests that he was essentially lying low, waiting for the upcoming district court to resolve matters. Nonetheless, on 1 April 1878 Brady was ambushed and murdered while walking down Lincoln’s main street. The murdering party consisted of six Tunstall men, one of whom was Billy the Kid. Three years later, Bonny was sentenced to hang for his role in Brady’s killing. Of course, as Western buffs know, he escaped from Lincoln jail a couple of weeks before the execution date, killing two guards in the process. Eleven weeks later, Pat Garrett tracked him down to Fort Sumner and shot him dead.

Charles Stewart Parnell—Gray initially opposed him and threw the weight of the Freeman—unsuccessfully—against him, but once Parnell had established his leadership Gray largely supported him. (Vanity Fair)

Pat Murphy is a history and economics graduate from University College Dublin who has recently retired from a 40-year career in financial services and information technology in Toronto, Can


Ver el vídeo: El crimen de guerra que Estados Unidos intentó ocultar


Comentarios:

  1. Giollabuidhe

    La admirable idea

  2. Sheridan

    los felicito, una idea genial

  3. Vukazahn

    Como especialista, puedo ayudar. Me registré específicamente para participar en la discusión.

  4. Abdul-Sabur

    ¿Y lo intentaste tú mismo?



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